Local Catastrophes Happen: Mega-Tsunami Moves 700-Ton Boulders Uphill

The tsunami generated by Fogo's collapse apparently swept boulders like this one from the shoreline up into the highlands of Santiago island. Here, a researcher chisels out a sample.  Image credit: Ricardo Ramal

A volcano slides into the sea causing an 800 foot wave to crash onto into an adjacent island. That wave picks up 700-ton boulders and throws them uphill leaving them stranded far above their source.   It sounds like a plot from a Hollywood movie but this is real.  It happened in the Cape Verde Islands off of […]

Dogmatic Assertions of Expertise: Having Faith in Flood Geology

In Badlands National Park in South Dakota, August 2013. Photo by Joel Duff

Everyone is an expert in something but they can’t be an expert in everything.  At some point we all have to rely on the expertise of others to guide us through our lives.  I am a biologist, however, the vastness of the field of biology leaves me in the position of deferring to the knowledge of […]

Curiosity Rover Update: Diverse Geological Formations on Mars


The Mars Curiosity Rover continues to make its way through the basin of Gale Crater on Mars.  I’ve provided periodical updates on its progress as it makes its way toward a large mountain in the center of the crater.  For the past six months the rover has not moved much, spending its days using the […]

Amazonian Forest Islands: Accidental Products of Ancient Human Occupation


The Amazon basin isn’t all a lush tropical forest.  In large portions of western Amazonian wet seasonally flooded grasslands – not trees – are the norm.   The upper branches of the Amazon River wind themselves across massive flood plains like snakes writhing across a sandy surface.  One feature of these nearly featureless flat plains that […]

Global Flood on Mars: Where Did the Water Go?


News of evidence that Mars was once host to a volume of water equivalent of the Arctic ocean on Earth has been hitting the newswires.  This might sound like new news but this is really just a more comprehensive analysis of work that has been ongoing for several years.  Preliminary analysis had already suggested that […]

Origins of a Tropical Island: Instant Paradise or a Long Chaotic Process?


In November of 2013, over 600 miles south of Tokyo, a volcanic eruption formed a new island. That new island continued to grow for over a year, eventually joining itself to the neighboring island of Nishino-shima, a volcanic island formed long ago. Today, volcanic activity continues to cause this new ocean-island to expand bringing it […]

Forams and Diatoms: Testing Young Earth Flood Geology Hypotheses


Diatoms with their symmetrical highly-photogenic glass houses may get most of the attention but the foraminiferans (forams) present some formidable competition.  In my recent article (Life in a Glass House)  I revealed that the glass-house remains of diatoms are conspicuously absent from the bottom two-thirds of the geological column.  This raised a rather uncomfortable question […]

Life in a Glass House: Diatoms Shatter Young Earth Flood Geology


Recently, while researching the diversity of life found in the fossil record for a seminar I will be giving in a few weeks, I was drawn into the fascinating world of diatoms.  Diatoms, which are single-celled organisms that live in glass-houses in almost any moist environment, are visually stunning, and so I thought I might use […]

The Lost World of South American Ungulates: A YEC Ungulate Problem

Wikipedia Macrauchenia a South American fossil ungulate.

Life is incredibly diverse.  Millions of species fill the seas, land and skies of our little planet.  It seems as if there is no end to the discovery of new animals, plants and other life forms.  As a biologist who teaches a class about plant diversity, I can always count on discovering a new group of plants […]

Origins of the Dead Sea, Part VII: Mt. Sodom – A Huge Pile Salt


Rising out of the plain at the south end of the Dead Sea Valley is a billion-ton mountain of salt.  An eight-mile long, three-mile wide, 742-foot tall (above Dead Sea level) mountain protruding from the basin plain. This is Mt. Sodom. This mountain is composed almost entirely of halite also known as rock salt.    Over […]


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