Geological Context II: Neanderthals and the Italian Supervolcano

A cave with sedimentary deposits on its floor.  Exposure to the atmosphere allows for sediments to be carried into the cave by wind, tracked in by animals but most material is feces from bats and other organisms that make temporary homes here including humans.  This particular cave on ?? island of Indonesia is where the skull and some bones of the so-called human "hobit" fossils were found 5.9 meters below the current surface in a pit seen in this picture.  These sediments also contain volcanic ash layers that allow ages to be assigned to different depths.

There are thousands of sites with either human remains or artifacts (stone tools usually) that are known across southern Europe and many are found in locations where they are found in layers stacked on top of each other like in caves or flood plain locations along rivers. But, the exact pattern of Neanderthal and modern human population migrations and changes is not my main interest.

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