On the Origin of Thorns: The Prelapsarian Acacia and the Good Creation


Thorns, prickles, spines and needles provide an effective means of protection for plants against many herbivores which would otherwise find them to be a source of nourishment.   A common perception of the Genesis account of creation is that God created plants with no form of natural protection against herbivores because God pronounced that  (Gen. […]

Ken Ham’s Ark Encounter to Usher in a Modern Day Reformation?

Geneva reformers Feral, Calvin, Beza, Knox

Ken Ham would have us believe that the modern reincarnation of the young-earth creationist movement, which he claims began only 55 years ago, is the real deal this time.  Unlike previous attempts over the past 300 years to create a history of the Earth with a recent global flood as a centerpiece, this time his para-church apologetics […]

A 60,000 Year Varve Record from Japan Refutes the Young-Earth Interpretation of Earth’s History

Varves in Montana - Photo credit Rod Benson  http://formontana.net/glaciers.html

Do places on Earth exist where annual records have been stored for tens of thousands of years and can be accessed today? Ice-cores and tree rings can preserve long records of yearly events but some of the best records come from layers of sediment underlying some lakes which,  if formed under the right conditions, can be read like the annual rings of […]

Dodging Darwin: How Ken Ham’s Ark Encounter is Slowly Embracing Evolution


As the strict young-earth creationists at Answers in Genesis work to complete their Ark Encounter “theme park,” they have expended an impressive amount of energy organizing the millions of species of land animals alive today into a handful of small groups they call “baramins.” Creationists insist that while adaptation or speciation within a particular “baramin” is observable (and, indeed, necessary in order to account for the present observed diversity of life), there is never any overlap between separate kinds. Unfortunately for the young-earth model, the push to minimize the number of animals riding on the Ark has exposed a major problem with this view.

Bones of Contention: How Will Creationists Respond To A Huge New Hominid Fossil Find?

This photo provided by National Geographic from their October 2015 issue shows a composite skeleton of Homo naledi surrounded by some of the hundreds of other fossil elements recovered from the Rising Star cave in South Africa, photographed at the Evolutionary Studies Institute of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. In an announcement made Thursday, Sept. 10, 2015, scientists say the fossils revealed the new member of the human family tree. The expedition team was led by Lee Berger of the university. (Robert Clark/National Geographic, Lee Berger/University of the Witwatersrand via AP) IMAGE MUST INCLUDE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC LOGO; CROPPING NOT PERMITTED; MANDATORY CREDIT: "ROBERT CLARK/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, LEE BERGER/UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND" Photo: Robert Clark, AP

Where no animal except a lost owl and rodent has ever found themselves, through skinny passages that I could not fit through, laying on or just under fine sediments, the partially fossilized bones of at least 15 individuals have been found deep in a cave in South Africa. UPDATE: I have written a follow-up to […]

Reflections on a Young Earth Creationist’ Approach to Scientific Apologetics

Yours truly looking reflective while a member of a panel discussion at a conference last week in Guatemala. I am probably just having a hard time answering an off-the-wall question posed by an audience member. Fortunately I was allowed to speak at this conference and had a wonderful time with a very engaging audience.

A few weeks ago I was a scheduled to present several lectures as part of a course offered by Veritas Theological Seminary in Santa Ana, California.  The course title was Scientific Apologetics: The Age of the Earth.  The course was split 50/50 between speakers from Solid Rock Lectures including myself, and two prominent employees of Answers […]

Trillions of Stone Age Artifacts: A Young Earth Anthropology Paradox

Hand axe from southern Libya desert

Trillions of stone artifacts cover the surface of the African continent. The product of the manufacturing of stone tools by hunters and gathers over long periods of time, these stone artifacts literally carpet the ground in some places in Egypt and Libya. Just how much Stone-Age produced rock could be strewn across the African continent? Trillions and trillions […]

Life in a Glass House: Diatoms Shatter Young Earth Flood Geology


Recently, while researching the diversity of life found in the fossil record for a seminar I will be giving in a few weeks, I was drawn into the fascinating world of diatoms.  Diatoms, which are single-celled organisms that live in glass-houses in almost any moist environment, are visually stunning, and so I thought I might use […]

Historical Science and Perceptions of Age: Craters on Mars

A "young" crater on Mars.  This is a young crater about 30 feet (9 meters) in diameter. How young? The blocks of material ejected from the crater-digging impact sit on top of the sand ripples near the crater. This suggests, from the estimated age of the area's sand ripples, that the crater was formed within the past 100,000 years. The dark sand inside the crater attests to the mobility of fine sand in the recent era in this Meridiani Planum region of Mars.  Image credit NASA/JPL-Caltech

Our perceptions of the age of an object are frequently based on our common experience but I have found that for many people those common experiences are of little help when it comes to examining objects for which a person has no experience at all.   A couple of years ago this really hit me as […]

An Ancient and Alien Forest Reconstructed: A challenge for young earth creationism

Reconstruction of a 300 million year old permian forest found in China. None of the plants in this forest exist today though some fern-like trees have similarities to modern day tree ferns.

Recent studies (see references below) of multiple intact fossilized forests provide a very detailed account of the presence of an seemingly alien forest that was found multiple locations across the entire globe at some point in the past.  A forest completely devoid of the presence of any flowering plants such as oaks, maples and beech […]

Fossil Eggs, Nests, Floods and Stressed Pregnant Dinosaurs

Dinosaur eggs found together in what was likely a nest.  Eggs like this have been found in clutches all around the world.

This is a follow-up to my previous post on the 15 juvenile dinosaur fossils found in a nest.   In that post I mentioned one of the explanations by flood geologists (ie. young earth creationists) for the presence of fossilized dinosaur eggs in the fossil record is that dinosaurs somehow escaped the initial stages of […]

Apparent Age: Craters on Mars

Tree Rings

This is the first in what will be a series of posts on the “apparent age” or “appearance of age” theory as an explanation for some of the features of the earth and cosmos. There is a long tradition of those that have espoused various forms of apparent age including probably the most famous proponent […]

Volcanic Ash (Tephra): Evidence of the Passage of Time

Eichholz Maar in Germany

The following example is derived from several articles involving sediment cores from explosion craters (maars) and their subsequent analysis (See refs at end).  I will assume little geological background in writing this example. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Summary:  Pollen profiles from a 46 meter core from the center of a small explosion crater in South Central France suggest […]

Who are the people of AIG and CMI


Back when there was a significant dispute between Answers in Genesis (AIG) and Creation Ministries International (CMI) I wondered where the creation science movement may be headed. At the time I thought it would be interesting to look at who the people are behind these organizations right now and see if the backgrounds of those […]