Quadrillions, Quintillions and Beyond: The Vast Fossil Record Refutes the Flood Geology Hypothesis

Don't worry I left a few for everyone else.  I collected just a few of the quadrillions of belemnite fossils that are contained in rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming.  These were collected on our hike on Sheep Mountain.  (image: Joel Duff)

Young earth creationists greatly underestimate the fossil record when they tell their audiences that there are “billions of dead things buried in rock layers.”  The point, that there are huge numbers of fossils, is correct but billions is such an underwhelming number compared to the reality of the fossil record.  The vastness of the fossil record was driven […]

Wyoming Fossils: Coming to Grips with the Absurdity of the Flood Geology Model of Fossil Origins


The sedimentary rocks of the Earth hold vast quantities of fossils.  Hundreds of years of observations have shown that these fossils are far from random in their distribution but rather they appear in the geological column in a distinct pattern or order referred to as fossil succession.  How can we explain the observed distribution of fossils in the geological […]

Hiking through the Jurassic Period in Wyoming: A Sheep Mountain Fossil Hunt


This summer two of my sons and I took a hike through the Jurassic time period.  Near Greybull, Wyoming is a long ridge called Sheep Mountain.  Geologically speaking, Sheep Mountain is an anticline which is a type of folded bedrock that has an arch-like shape with its oldest rocks at its core.  Because what are typically horizontal rock layers are here found tipped […]

Perceiving Age: Student’s Interpretations of the History of Craters on Mars

Another "young" crater on Mars. Notice the dark debris that has been strewn over the lighter "older" material.

Our perceptions of the age of a subject are frequently based on our common experience with similar subjects. Most people have some ability to guess the age of children with seemingly very little prior information.  We might call this ability to guess age our intuition but this “intuition” is the scientific method working automatically in our minds.  Our […]

Walking in the Footprints of Giants: The Red Gulch Dinosaur Tracksite in Wyoming


Scattered across the upper surface of a hard layer of limestone in the badlands of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming are the tell-tale signs of dinosaur activity: footprints.  Over one thousand footprints have been identified here, most of them on one exposure of rock in a small gully in the Red Gulch region.  On our family vacation this […]

NH Photography: Devils Tower National Monument

Devils Tower, Wyoming. HDR composition looking from the south. Image:  Joel Duff, June 2016.

On our way to the bighorn basin last month we stopped at Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. It was a beautiful cool morning and so we took the 1.3 mile hike around the base of the tower.  From there we were able to watch several climbers scaling the sides.  Unlike Mt. Rushmore which always leaves […]

Squeezing the Lost Grand Canyon of Egypt into the Young Earth Paradigm: An impossible* Task

Yellowstone Falls in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming.  Photo: Joel Duff, June 2016.

In Egypt the Nile River Valley conceals a massive canyon that once was as deep and wide as the Grand Canyon in Arizona.  We have explored the origins of this lost canyon in the past three posts.   We found that geologists have described the origins of the canyon itself at the time of the Messinian Salinity […]

NH Summer Update: Vacation, Ark Encounter and Coming Attractions

Devils Tower in Wyoming. Photo: Joel Duff, June 2016

The past month has been quite an adventure.  It has been good to get a break from my job and this blog, which was starting to feel like a job.  Hopefully I am refreshed and bring some new perspectives – and photos – to share with you in the coming months.  Below are a couple of highlights […]

The Lost Grand Canyon of Egypt, Part III: A Brief Chronology of Events

Painting, by Carlo Mancini, of the Great Pyramids on the distant shore of the Nile River. By Jean-Marc Pascolo (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.o...], via Wikimedia Commons

A massive canyon lays hidden below the Nile Valley in Egypt.  In Part II we looked as how this massive canyon was formed. Before we go on to look a bit deeper into this canyon and how it fits into Biblical chronology lets look at the chronological sequence of historical events – according to the consensus of geological […]

The Lost Grand Canyon of Egypt, Part II: Origins of the Nile River Valley

The Meditteranean basin showing where major salt formations are found.  From:  Ryan, W. B. F., Decoding the Mediterranean salinity crisis. Sedimentology 56, 95-136 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.01031.x

A meandering river on a wide river plain running through Egypt is the site of one of the best-known civilizations in history.  But the Nile Valley has a deep secret.  A huge canyon lies directly under the Nile Valley that attests to a time long before the Egyptians came to inhabit the fertile valley floor. How could […]

The Lost Grand Canyon of Egypt: Another Monument to an Ancient Earth

One "gooseneck" at Goosenecks of the San Juan Sate Park in Utah.  Mid-afternoon late July 2013

The Grand Canyon is one of the best-know geological formations on earth.  Today I want to introduce you to another canyon you have probably never heard of.   I call this canyon the lost grand canyon of Egypt.  Through a series of four posts I will introduce you to this amazing canyon and demonstrate that it […]

The Grand Canyon: Magnificent Witness to Earth’s History


The Grand Canyon is one of the most iconic geological features on Earth.  Its immensity of the canyon regularly causes those that have peered into its depths to wonder about its origins.  How could such an awe-inspiring canyon have formed? This fascination with the Grand Canyon has fueled a long a history of geological research.  As a result there is a wealth […]

The Toba Super-Eruption: The Global Catastrophe that Creationists Ignore

Comparison of material emitted for a number of famous volcanic eruptions. All the ones that emitted 100 cubic kilometers or more and considered super-eruptions.    Toba has erupted more than once but the one shown is the youngest.   Image credit: USGS - http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/eruptionsize.php

Sudden catastrophic events are not unknown in Earth’s history.  Large craters are evidence of past cosmic impacts.  Widespread layers of volcanic ash are a testimony of massive volcanic eruptions.   But when did these catastrophes occur and could they have impacted human history? Standard geological models place the largest catastrophic events many eons ago.  So long […]

2500 Year Old Human Footprints Discovered: Insight into the Formation of Fossil Footprints


Countless numbers of footprints made by hundreds of kinds of organisms are preserved in hundreds of individual layers of the geological column.   Millions of these tracks have been identified from just the tiny fraction of the rocks that are exposed at the surface of the Earth.   But how were so many footprints preserved? In conversations with […]

Fossil Wasp Cocoons in Dinosaur Eggs: Complex Ecology Contradicts YEC Flood Geology Hypothesis

Several fossilized wasp cocoons visible here in this titanosaurus egg.  Image:  SARZETTI (co-author of the paper describing this finding)

What happened to dinosaur eggs that were either abandoned or broke prematurely?  You might think that this is a question that is impossible to answer, but dinosaur eggs have been discovered with intriguing evidence of scavenging of many forms.   By studying the remains of organisms that are preserved in preserved dinosaur eggs paleontologists have discovered compelling evidence that a complex ecology […]