Quadrillions, Quintillions and Beyond: The Vast Fossil Record Refutes the Flood Geology Hypothesis

Don't worry I left a few for everyone else.  I collected just a few of the quadrillions of belemnite fossils that are contained in rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming.  These were collected on our hike on Sheep Mountain.  (image: Joel Duff)

Young earth creationists greatly underestimate the fossil record when they tell their audiences that there are “billions of dead things buried in rock layers.”  The point, that there are huge numbers of fossils, is correct but billions is such an underwhelming number compared to the reality of the fossil record.  The vastness of the fossil record was driven […]

Wyoming Fossils: Coming to Grips with the Absurdity of the Flood Geology Model of Fossil Origins


The sedimentary rocks of the Earth hold vast quantities of fossils.  Hundreds of years of observations have shown that these fossils are far from random in their distribution but rather they appear in the geological column in a distinct pattern or order referred to as fossil succession.  How can we explain the observed distribution of fossils in the geological […]

Hiking through the Jurassic Period in Wyoming: A Sheep Mountain Fossil Hunt


This summer two of my sons and I took a hike through the Jurassic time period.  Near Greybull, Wyoming is a long ridge called Sheep Mountain.  Geologically speaking, Sheep Mountain is an anticline which is a type of folded bedrock that has an arch-like shape with its oldest rocks at its core.  Because what are typically horizontal rock layers are here found tipped […]

Walking in the Footprints of Giants: The Red Gulch Dinosaur Tracksite in Wyoming


Scattered across the upper surface of a hard layer of limestone in the badlands of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming are the tell-tale signs of dinosaur activity: footprints.  Over one thousand footprints have been identified here, most of them on one exposure of rock in a small gully in the Red Gulch region.  On our family vacation this […]

Remnants of a Shallow Sea: A Visit to Monument Rocks in Kansas


In remote western Kansas, groups of rock pillars stand like a natural Stonehenge over the grassy plains.  One such group of these pillars south of Oakley is named Monument Rocks.  Returning from our Wyoming and Colorado adventure, we stopped overnight in Scott City, Kansas just south of this interesting rock formation. The following morning we made our way along many […]

Fossil Hunting in the Badlands of South Dakota

A portion of a jawbone I picked up off a hillside in the badlands of South Dakota. Photo: Joel Duff

So many highlights from our vacation but I am going to hold off on some of my favorites until I am able to work through my images and develop more back story to go with them.  Instead, I will start with a short stop we made at Badlands National Park in South Dakota.  We were there all […]

NH Summer Update: Vacation, Ark Encounter and Coming Attractions

Devils Tower in Wyoming. Photo: Joel Duff, June 2016

The past month has been quite an adventure.  It has been good to get a break from my job and this blog, which was starting to feel like a job.  Hopefully I am refreshed and bring some new perspectives – and photos – to share with you in the coming months.  Below are a couple of highlights […]

Cave with Structures Made from Stalagmites Another Problem for YEC Chronology


It seems like every month there is an amazing new discovery of ancient human activities.  Last week it was revealed that “structures” built from stalagmites deep – more than 1000 feet – in a French cave are much older than previously thought.  You can read about these strange structures in many places. I found this article in The Atlantic to be […]

2500 Year Old Human Footprints Discovered: Insight into the Formation of Fossil Footprints


Countless numbers of footprints made by hundreds of kinds of organisms are preserved in hundreds of individual layers of the geological column.   Millions of these tracks have been identified from just the tiny fraction of the rocks that are exposed at the surface of the Earth.   But how were so many footprints preserved? In conversations with […]

A Tale of Taphonomy: Clam Shrimp Fossils and the Age of the Earth

A clam shrimp.  This has a nearly clear carapace (the clam shells) and has a large number of eggs in its brood pouch over its back.

One of the great privileges of my job is that I get to participate on graduate student committees. This allows me to get up close and personal with data from a variety of sub-disciplines of biology that sometimes extend far from those of my particular expertise.  You know by now that I carry a particular […]

Ken Ham’s Biblical Evolution? I Have a Book That Says Otherwise

A Creationist' Evolution Terminology Guide.  I have modified a screenshot image of PPT slide from Ken Ham's debate with Bill Nye.  You can find the original image here:  https://answersingenesis.org/blogs/ken-ham/2014/02/12/post-debate-potpourri-part-one/

Two years ago Ken Ham very publicly promoted what he believes is a biblical model of evolution to explain the diversity of life on Earth.   I have a book before me that provides compelling evidence that his model of evolution is wrong. That book is the Bible.  For those that follow young earth creation literature nothing that Ken […]

Titanosaurus: Largest Dinosaur Ever Found But is it the Largest Animal?

A single femur from the newly found titanosaurus. PR photo:  MEF

What is the largest animal to have ever lived on the Earth?  Most people will answer “dinosaurs” or “sauropods” in particular.  While some titanosaurs may have been the heaviest land animals they were not the largest animals to have lived on Earth. That distinction goes to an animal that is very much alive today:  the […]

John Ray on Flood Geology in 1695: Words that Still Apply Today

Snail shell, San Diego CA. Photo: Joel Duff 2014

Modern young-earth creationism has deep roots.  The essential elements of flood geology were established in the 1600s though much of what passed as flood geology at that time might be difficult to recognize today.  One thing that hasn’t changed is the style of rhetoric frequently used to promote flood geology to the general public. To […]

Dodging Darwin: How Ken Ham’s Ark Encounter is Slowly Embracing Evolution


As the strict young-earth creationists at Answers in Genesis work to complete their Ark Encounter “theme park,” they have expended an impressive amount of energy organizing the millions of species of land animals alive today into a handful of small groups they call “baramins.” Creationists insist that while adaptation or speciation within a particular “baramin” is observable (and, indeed, necessary in order to account for the present observed diversity of life), there is never any overlap between separate kinds. Unfortunately for the young-earth model, the push to minimize the number of animals riding on the Ark has exposed a major problem with this view.

Fossil Wasp Cocoons in Dinosaur Eggs: Complex Ecology Contradicts YEC Flood Geology Hypothesis

Several fossilized wasp cocoons visible here in this titanosaurus egg.  Image:  SARZETTI (co-author of the paper describing this finding)

What happened to dinosaur eggs that were either abandoned or broke prematurely?  You might think that this is a question that is impossible to answer, but dinosaur eggs have been discovered with intriguing evidence of scavenging of many forms.   By studying the remains of organisms that are preserved in preserved dinosaur eggs paleontologists have discovered compelling evidence that a complex ecology […]