Christian Responses to the Spiritual and Physical Status of Neanderthals

neanderthal-reconstruction2The physical and spiritual status of Neanderthals has been hotly debated since the first fossilize of bones were described from Neander Valley in Germany in 1856.   Since that time bones from more than 400 Neanderthal individuals have been recovered over a large geographical range (fig 1). Hundreds of published studies on these bones, artifacts such as tools, habitations, and possible artwork and now DNA have given us a clearer picture of the physical and cultural capacities of these hominids.

For evangelical Christians questions about Neanderthals go far beyond their physical similarities. Rather it is their spiritual status that is of great import.  Are Neanderthals part of the headwaters of the human race or do they fall outside the bounds of those made in God’s image?  Where do Neanderthals fit into fundamental doctrines of original sin and debate over the historicity of Adam?

Locations of some important Neanderthal sites showing the known range.

Fig. 1. Locations of some important Neanderthal sites showing the known range (blue line)

The answers to these questions from the Christian community have been confusing and contradictory to put it mildly. Some believe Neanderthals were no different from any group of people alive today, other’s believe them to be a separate species with no relationship with modern humans and devoid of the image of God. It is not surprising that given these opposing responses from theologians and lay Christian leaders that many Christians are confused about how to think about Neanderthals.

Below I provide a recent example of these different approach to Neanderthals and then review how prominent science and faith organizations deal with the Neanderthal question.

Did Neanderthal and Modern Humans Interbreed? 

My question wasn't as hypothetical as it might have sounded. I actually have had my genome tested by and that analysis my genome is about 2.9% Neanderthal.

My question wasn’t as hypothetical as it might have sounded. I actually have had my genome tested by and that analysis suggests my genome is about 2.9% Neanderthal.

I will illustrate the diverse response of the Christian community to Neanderthals in the answers to a question I asked recently at the 2014 Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) meeting.  I attended a panel discussion between members of BioLogos, Reasons to Believe (RTB), and Southern Baptists (See Part I and Part II of my reflections on ETS).  In the Q&A time at the end I asked the following question directly primarily at the RTP representatives: When I send out my DNA for genetic analysis and I get the results back and I am told that I am 2.9% Neanderthal, what should I think about this?  I further qualified that I understood that there were some questionable assumptions behind that particular percentage but the idea that there has been hybridization between Neanderthals and modern humans seems to have gained majority support among geneticists.

Dr. Rana of Reasons to Believe was first to respond.  He acknowledged that the consensus view does seem to have shifted toward acceptance of past hybridization of Neanderthals with modern humans.  However, it was his contention that it was too early to be sure. If I remember right he questioned the quality of Neanderthal sequences and suggested that the genetic models are not clear enough for us to draw this conclusion.

Dr. Rana went on to talk about low population sizes of Neanderthals and the statistical unlikeliness that Neanderthals would have encountered modern humans during their short time of overlap in Europe.   I discovered later that most of his responses were similar to opinions he expressed in an article, Neanderthal Population Data Raised Doubt about Human-Neanderthal Interbreeding, written just one month earlier.

Dr.  Faulk representing BioLogos objected to Ranna’s take on the data.  He mentioned the results of a ancient human DNA genome sequence that was obtained from a 45,000 year old bone preserved in Siberia just a few months ago.  The DNA from that bone revealed it belonged to a human that had a similar amount of Neanderthal DNA as found in Europeans today. Dr. Faulk went on to explain the genetic significance of this discovery.  Having read the paper that Dr. Faulk was referring to not more a few weeks earlier I understood just what he was saying.  However, I had the feeling that I might have been one of only a handful of people in a room of over 100 that caught the significance of the genetic data that he was so excited about.  I appreciated the enthusiasm but there was too much detail in his explanation.  I probably can’t sum this data up much better but I’ll give it a try in a footnote.*

Dr. Hugh Ross responded by noting that he had addressed the Neanderthal issue recently (I haven’t been able to find this in writing) by addressing the question, what if there had been hybridization? While he professed that he was not convinced that hybridization had occurred, he nonetheless explained that even if hybridization of Neanderthals and modern human had indeed happened it would not be proof that Neanderthals had the image of God.  He hypothesized instead that this could have been an example of bestiality that the OT was so adamant in warning against.  Man is sinful and this could have been a sinful act of rebellion.

Evangelical Approaches to Neanderthals

I found the responses to my Neanderthal question fascinating and illuminating.  Differences in the approach to scientific data and Biblical interpretation between BioLogos and Reasons to Believe were clearly evident. The stark contrast on display at ETS caused me wonder how their responses to Neanderthals compared to other Christian viewpoints.  Below I briefly summarize the views of four groups  of scientists and theists dedicated to helping Christians articulate their faith in light of scientific discoveries.

Reasons to Believe (Progressive Creationists):   RTB accepts the scientific consensus that Neanderthals lived from over 200,000 years to ca. 40,000 years ago (1).  They believe that Neanderthals were a separately created species and thus do not share a common ancestor with modern man and were not endowed with the image of God.   Any resemblance with modern man is due to common design features used by God to create modern man and other hominids but not due to physical common ancestry. They dispute evidence of common ancestry and generally downplay or call into question evidence of complex tool use and possible artwork produced by Neanderthals.  Regarding possible hybridization they offer alternative hypothesis for explaining possible hybridization and so dispute the growing consensus view that hybridization happened.

Bottom Line:  Neanderthals are separate unrelated ancient animal creation and were not spiritual beings.

Scientific Creationists (Young Earth Creationists):   Nearly universal in proclaiming Neanderthals to be descendants of Adam and Eve and therefore created in the image of God.   All of the features we see today in Neanderthals were encoded in the DNA of the eight persons saved on Noah’s Ark.  So all Neanderthals have lived since a global flood which ended just 4350 years ago.   It is proposed they represent populations of individuals that migrated from Babel around 4250 years ago into Europe where they specialized in cave living.   They agree that they disappeared before the peak of the last Ice Age which they believe happened 4100 years ago (See the Ice Age timeline according to Answers in Genesis.   All Neanderthals are thus compressed into a maximum of 150 years of Earth’s history!  Some creationists claim their striking cranial features and strong bones were just the result of their living in harsh cold conditions after the Ice Age.   Hybridization? For YECs, evidence of hybridization is not unexpected since Neanderthals are just a population of people and thus would have had some interaction with other people that migrated into Europe a bit later.

YEC regularly downplay the differences between Neanderthals and humans including the genetic differences that have been found. They also readily accept the findings of anthropology that Neanderthals may have expressed some forms of culture such as burying their dead and production of art work.  In addition, I should note that YECs generally consider all the names lineages of Homo including H. erectus, H. floresienses (the hobbit) and H. hiedelbergensis to be variations of modern humans and all descendants of Noah and his family.

Bottom Line:  Neanderthals are descendants of Adam and Eve and no different from you and me in any way other than minor anatomical differences.

Intelligent Design:  Leaders of the ID movement have taken the position that Neanderthals are one of us.  They believe that Neanderthals, and other hominids species such as Homo erectus and H. hiedelbergensis are all descendants of a specially created ancestor of all Homo by an intelligent designer.  Most ID advocates don’t believe in common ancestry of man with other primates but do believe that the first created man may have branched off into various races of people by natural processes.   They accept the fossil record of Homo as a record of a million years or more of changes to the Homo lineage.   Because Neanderthals are just a race of man and related by common ancestor they would not have a problem accepting the evidence of hybridization of Neanderthal and modern man.

Because ID claims to have no commitment to a particular designer and do not discuss theological issues with any regularity it would be up to the individual to determine what it meant to for man to have the image of God and when God installed that image into the Homo lineage. Christian ID advocates would probably find a diverse range of opinions on this matter ranging from the original Homo a million years ago and all its descendant lineages having the image of God to maybe a more recent origin of the image of God, given only to the genetic lineage we call Homo sapiens today.  Those that want to associate man as having the image of God with great cultural awareness may place that image much later but then it would not be placed on a single couple that gave rise to all other people but on a representative pair or an entire group.  That group could be all anatomically modern people excluding Neanderthals or sometime before the split of modern human and Neanderthal.

Bottom Line:  Neanderthals are one of several lineages of homo the has diverged naturally since the special creation of humans by an intelligent designer about a million years ago.

Evolutionary Creationists (BioLogos):   ECs follow the consensus scientific view that Neanderthal a sister species to modern man. Hybridized with modern man did occur, even if very rarely, 40 to 60 thousands years ago. Members of BioLogos may take different approaches to understanding the spiritual status of Neanderthals. Neandethals may have had the image of God and were descendants of the first Adam who was endowed with the image of God and was a common ancestor to both populations. Another possibility is a representative view that Adam represented mankind and the image of God was conferred to all humanity including Neanderthals and Adam’s sin likewise was conferred to all those with the image of God.  Another possibility is that Neanderthals are not fully human but illicitly had relations with God’s chosen race.  Most ECs would be convinced that Neanderthals were definitely not the same as modern man in terms of their physical status and not closely related to any modern man alive but do share a common ancestor.  That ancestor is estimated to have lived 300 to 400 thousand of years ago.

Bottom Line:  Neanderthals diverged from the ancestors of modern humans hundreds of thousands of years ago and have hybridized with modern man.  The may or may-not bear the image of God depending on a persons understanding of what the image of God is and when God established the headwaters of his image-bearing people.

Concluding Thoughts

It should be apparent that question of what to do with Neanderthals is one that clearly divides the Christian community.  Here, the YEC position has a great advantage because it seems to provide a simple answer that conforms with all previously held orthodox positions on the unity of the human race, humans as image bearers of God and the universality of our sinful nature.   It preserves a historical Adam and Eve and placed Neanderthals in the human family tree.  Unfortunately this simple view is confounded by a lack of physical evidence.   YECs must construct a long strong of ad-hoc explanations for the distribution of fossil hominids, the differences in anatomical characters and the genetic distinctiveness of Neanderthals.  There is also the question of the seeming lack of most intellectual capacities in Neanderthals that some might consider as part of the being God’s image bearer.  The YEC explanation turns out not to be a simple answer at all but rather only a deceptively simple answer and thus of little use.

Unable to compress all the entire Neanderthal race into a short history between a global flood and a singular Ice Age, Christians who accept an age-indeterminate reading of Genesis 1 are not left without a Neanderthal challenge.  If the last Neanderthal’s walked the earth up until about 40,000 years ago what do we make of their spiritual condition? The temporal origin of the image of God becomes a central question for which there is no simple answer forthcoming.  When I look at a survey of seven options for understanding Adam and Evolution provided by Lee Irons and ask how the spiritual status of Neanderthal would fit into this table it is obvious that there would be tremendous variation in opinions even within many of his categories.

I don’t have satisfying answers to these fundamental theological questions.  That Neanderthals were genetically distinct seems clear enough but whether that places themselves outside of humanity I don’t know.  Because there are so many unknowns I profess to lean toward the Biologos approach here. That approach sees the moral and spiritual questions about Neanderthals as open and unanswered.  Scientists and theologians are encouraged to sift the data, draw up hypotheses and test them against Scripture and God’s book of nature.  We know that genetic studies of ancient man are only in the very first stages of development. Within a decade 10s of thousands of ancient people will be genetically analyzed and new archaeological finds will surely continue to reshape our views of the cultural capacities of ancient hominid groups.

Christians should be humble in their approach to difficult questions even if they may be very important questions.  Committing oneself to a particular belief without sufficient scriptural warrant causes one to become entrenched in one’s position leading to interpretation of facts – biblical or physical – based on preconceived notions.  There is still much to learn both from science and from continued biblical studies especially concerning the meaning of being made in the image of God.  I pray that we will one day have clearer answers but until then I hope that we can sharpen each other over time.

Addendum:  Scientific Evidence that Neanderthals were Genetically and Physically Distinct from Living Humans

Our perceptions of Neanderthals have been influenced heavily by early drawings and speculation.  An early description of Neaderthals as humans with genetic conditions or suffering from rickets due to their perceived cave-dwelling nature has been an enduring one for the public.  For 100 years Neanderthals were only known from a few specimens but today we have hundreds of specimens and have identified many locations where Neanderthals lived.   In the last decade a clearer picture of these hominids has been constructed.  The most important new evidence comes from DNA sequences extracted from bones and teeth.

Below I show a few figures that summarize data collected in the past decade that has convinced anthropologists that Neanderthals represent a distinct genetic and anatomical lineage of hominids if not a separate species.  This is presented as a scientific data without commentary on how these data should be interpreted theologically.

First we have a snapshot of genetic differences among living people and Neanderthals and two other fossils hominids.  The length of the lines that connect the samples represents the amount of genetic differences. You can see that all people alive today are much more similar to each other than they are to any Neanderthal.  Also notice that Neanderthals from several locations have been genetically analyzed and although they may be separated by hundreds of miles and dated thousands of years apart they are much more similar to each other genetically then they are to any other known DNA sequences.  This is very strong evidence that Neanderthals represent a unique genetic lineage apart from any lineage of people alive today.

A comparison of the amount of similarity in mitochondrial DNA between individual humans, Neanderthals and other fossils. Fig. 7. Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12788 A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos.  Matthias Meyer et al.

A comparison of the amount of similarity in mitochondrial DNA between individual humans, Neanderthals and other fossils. Fig. 7. Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12788
A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos.
Matthias Meyer et al.

Below is a figure showing a similar set of data but with more samples.  Samples in grey represent individuals from all people groups on Earth alive today.  The length of the lines shows how different they are genetically with African lineages having the most variation.  All Neanderthal sequences are more similar to one another than they are to any person alive today.

Mitochondrial DNA differences between lineages of modern humans and Neanderthals.

Mitochondrial DNA differences between lineages of modern humans and Neanderthals.

It may be tempting to think that these differences are simply the result of DNAs from living people vs sequences from a lineage that died off thousands of years ago but in the past couple of years bones of modern humans from thousands of years to even tens of thousands of years old have been DNA sequenced and those bones produce DNAs that fall right into the grey group.  One example is Otzi the Iceman whose body was found frozen in the Alps a decade ago. Despite being more than 5000 years old his DNA sequence showed that he is closely related to southern Europeans today.

Below is a figure showing some of the typical differences in skull features between humans and Neanderthals.

A comparison of human and Neanderthal skulls showing some of the typical differences.

A comparison of human and Neanderthal skulls showing some of the typical differences.

* Today Europeans have a small percentage 1 to 3% of their DNA that is a match the genome of Neanderthals.  That DNA is spread around in our genomes as tiny little bits.  To have spread to all Europeans that intermixing event would have had to have occurred long ago so that Neanderthal DNA introduced into the population would have had time to spread.  Each generation that DNA not only would be passed on but would also be mixed in our genomes as we recombine our chromosomes prior to reproduction.   So genetic models can backtrack how long it would take since a hybridization event for our genomes to look like they do today. These models suggest it would have been 40 to 60 thousand years ago.  Last year, a complete sequence of a 45,000 year old modern human from a Siberian cave was produced. Analysis of that skeleton revealed that this person also had about 3% Neanderthal sequence but significantly that Neanderthal DNA was found in long pieces of intact Neanderthal genome segments rather than broken into thousands of pieces like it is in my genome.   This is just what geneticists predict would be found in someone who was much closer in time to the hybridization event. In fact with that genome now they were able to calculate much more precisely how many generations had passed since the introduction of Neanderthal DNA into the lineage that lead to that 45,000 year old man.


1) Pinhasi, Ron, Thomas FG Higham, Liubov V. Golovanova, and Vladimir B. Doronichev. “Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 21 (2011): 8611-8616.

Cover image: ANeanderthal and a human kid. Image credit: Neanderthal Museum.


  1. geochristian says:

    I haven’t seen a YEC reference to Neanderthals living as recently as 3000 years ago (~1000 BC). The world map that accompanies Snelling and Matthew’s article When Was the Ice Age in Biblical History? makes it look like they advocate that Neanderthals lived between 2200 and 2100 BC, a period of only about 100 years, which is absurd.


    • Thanks for pointing that out. I had 3000 in there as a placeholder to check the date and then forgot to change that number. Yes, I think they put Neanderthal between the Tower of Babel and maximum of the Ice Age. So I think that is 2250 BC. I’ll recheck and update this soon. Thanks again for catching that error.


  2. Is there a reason why you call YEC “Scientific Creationists” when they more or less hold that nearly of all of mainstream science is either misinterpreted or simply incorrect? The title “Young-creationists” would be better, IMO.


    • Hi, thanks for the feedback. I agree that the term “scientific” gives too much credence to Ham and company. I usually use the term to apply to the specific creationists community that thinks they are using science in their apologetic while YEC can include a broader community that included apparent age advocates or anyone is committed to a particular interpretive therapeutic but may not argue from scientific evidence for these position. So I used both terms to cover a broader group. But, YEC would have been sufficient. What I won’t refer to YECS as is their new self-identifying term – biblical creationists since I consider many old earth position as biblical creation.


  3. Is there not an inevitable problem of where to draw the line if you think that there is a thing (soul, or God’s image, or whatever) that you either have or don’t have, unless you reject human descent from non-humans? I regard Biologos as tactical allies against separate creationists, all of whom I regard as indefensible deniers of reality, but do not see how they can avoid this problem. (Non-believers bypass it by regarding human personality as at the end, for now, of a continuum, but I don’t see this option as available to those who believe in the divine image, or in an immortal soul).


    • Paul, I can’t disagree that this is a challenge. In fact this is possibly the biggest challenge that most old earth creationist positions much face. Progressive creationists feel like they can avoid the problem by claiming special creation within a progressive creation over time but then they feel they must argue that Neanderthals are separate creations. What happens as more evidence of human personality is attributed to Neanderthals? I believe there are some hypotheses that have been put forward by theologians but these will need to be vetted further.


    • Please allow me to offer my view here on this thorny issue: As a long, long-time Believer, and almost equally long-time Geologist, this drove me crazy and disheartened until that still, small Voice gave the amazingly simple answer (OK, simple compared to the confusion).
      It is this, I believe: Adam, whether a singular, special creation or chosen out of the natural animals, had no soul until God Himself breathed in life. I mean, the gunk in my sink strainer has life–and I regularly kill it off with Chlorox. But, spiritual life, soul life, comes from beyond our universe, and by its nature transcends our physical universe. I should hope it does! I feel my age.
      Adam became a ‘living man’ when he was given a soul and thus made more than just another animal, however relatively intelligent. Some computers have degrees of intelligence, but are neither living nor made in the Image of God.
      What those pre-Adamic animals did does not much concern me or my soul, except in the physical, genetic sense. My autism may well come from this hybridization. Eh, beats being just normal.
      The flood of Noah clearly left no physical remains–and I have looked for some! Likewise, even if Adam and Eve had sex a hundred times a day and popped out kids like a pez dispenser, they could not have populated Earth. But, something happened in The Flood, and afterwards humanity had a great leap forward. So, why not a Flood of spirit, of souls, if you will, and while the corrupted souls died, new ones were birthed in the previous soulless races all over Earth. Ergo, exactly what we see in all the records of Scripture, Geology, Archeology, Anthropology, Genetics, History, tribal traditions, etc. Frankly, it was a sort of foreshadowing of the cleansing and new life promised in the Second coming.
      If you have a better idea, I would really like to see it!!! But, unless you can explain the question in all these disciplines, I am not impressed. I sorrow for the YEC crowd which is so without understanding.


      • Interesting!!!! Is there room to agree to disagree for all involved in this debate? The more I casually read about science, geology , biblical anthropology, etc., it seems clear to me the earth is very old and ancient. I am not a scientist or one who can even fully understand the contexts of all the research. I am a mother who simply wants to explain to my children my Christian faith. I can’t dismiss what they may call archiac humans, carbon dating, biblical anthropology and such. Kids are curious and analytical– and should not be raised in ignorance. There is much that has not been discovered, researched or revealed and may not be in our lifetime or ever. Faith!!!


  4. Preston Garrison says:

    I recently wrote a short discussion on the difficult problem of defining the spiritual dawn of humanity working from scientific evidence. It comes at the end of a post giving a basic introduction to the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroup trees and the tracing of modern human migrations by phylogeography. I had thought that Biologos might want this, but they thought it overlapped with a series Dennis Venema is doing.


    • Preston, good stuff there. I think I’m right along your line of thinking there. I see no sense in pushing Adam back a million years much less even 40,000 years. I don’t look for the image of God in technology. Thanks for sharing, I wish I had seen that earlier. Joel


  5. Great overview of this issue.
    I’ve done a bit of research on the interbreeding of neanderthals, homo sapiens and denisovans myself during my biology undergrad.

    I put it up here if you’re interested.
    Conclusion: I think they’re all part of the human community, and that they did interbreed.

    What this means as far as spirituality is concerned… that’s a very interesting question. I tend to agree with the position you attributed to the advocate of Intelligent Design.


  6. Preston Garrison says:

    If your thinking tends to be that spiritual origins were later, rather than earlier, you may find the article I referenced by the linguist Colin Renfrew interesting.

    2008 Neuroscience, evolution and the sapient paradox: the factuality of value and of the sacred


  7. A big problem remains for the YEC with the issue of the ability to speak for Neanderthals. I have read about the position of the hyoid bone in Neanderthals that makes it unlikely they could have spoken like Homo Sapiens.


  8. Here is a report on a paper published in Nature today on this issue.


  9. Many questions about souls and eternity were resolved for me when a beloved family member committed suicide. I could understand her reasons and I felt great compassion for her. In the teachings of the church in which I grew up, though, she was consigned to hell — she had committed the sin of self-murder and by dying, she wasn’t able to ask forgiveness. I thought about that and decided that no matter what her reasons, I loved her and would forgive her if it were up to me. Then the question became, could I love more than God? Of course not. So — she’s in heaven, case closed.

    Same with all of God’s creation. I love dogs, horses, cats, I’m in awe of elephants and lions, I think whales are spectacular. Not so crazy about mosquitoes or ex-husbands, but . . . . So many animals have supported mankind thru the centuries; why should they not be with us in some way?

    Big problem, but God, being God, I’m sure can figure it out. It gives me great comfort to believe this, and if you “learned gentlemen” prefer to argue about how many angels can dance on the head of a pin, go to it and have a ball.


  10. Maybe the Bible can help us understand where Neanderthals fit into the puzzle.

    The Biblical Nephilim were a race of Human like beings who descended from heaven onto Mount Hermon. They spread into the Levant, where they interbred with humans, fathering a race of giant hybrid beings.

    Neanderthals were a race of Human like beings who ‘descended’ into the Levant from Eurasia. They interbred with Humans, fathering a race of hybrid beings. Neanderthals had remarkable strength, and physiques to match.

    Perhaps the Nephilim mythology preserves a loose memory of the time Humans and Neanderthals met in the Middle East? It’s not hard to imagine them being remembered as mighty giants. Maybe the Humans who met them perceived them as something supernatural? Just some interesting conjecture.


  11. Thanks for putting the “bottom line” section under each of the viewpoints. The scientific data and charts are helpful. The “bottom line” allows for those of us who are not into data, science to get a clear line of differencees of opinions or thoughts on this matter.



  1. […] Christian Responses to the Spiritual and Physical Status of Neanderthals- How do Christians analyze the evidence for the existence of Neanderthals and their genetic lineage? Here’s an excellent post on some Christian responses to the evidence with some insightful commentary. […]


  2. […] susceptible to either salvation or damnation). Joel Duff’s (Graham’s cousin) blog, Naturalis Historia, provides a fascinating, pre-naledi overview of different Christian positions on the […]


Comments or Questions?

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: