Can You Spot the Difference? The Slowly Changing Surface of Mars

The photo below was snapped by the Curiosity Rover which has been making its way across an ancient lake-bed on Mars for several years.  But how long ago was a lake present at this location and how did the lake-bed rocks become eroded to the point we see them today?   To address those broad questions, let me ask a more specific question:  What if you had been walking on Mars 6000 years ago at this very location what do you think it would have seen?  What differences do you think you could spot between past and present?

A hillside with thousands of wafer-thin layers of rock on Mars.  Taken by the Mars Curiosity Rover.  Image: JPL/NASA-Caltech 2015

A hillside with thousands of wafer-thin layers of rock on Mars. Taken by the Mars Curiosity Rover. Image: JPL/NASA-Caltech 2015

I have zoomed in on one section of this rock outcrop to show you the intricate pattern of erosion that has taken place.  These thin slabs of rock projecting into the thin martian air are less than one inch thick.

A bit closer view of the thin layers of rock that have eroded into sheet of rock that jut out from the rock wall in gravity defying ways.  Image:  JPL/NASA-Catltech

A bit closer view of the thin layers of rock that have eroded into sheet of rock that jut out from the rock wall in gravity defying ways. Image: JPL/NASA-Catltech

Consider the following question:  How far into the future or past would you have to go to take a picture in which you would be able to readily spot the differences with what we observe today?

The restaurant kids meal activity "spot the differences"  has many android app versions now including this one by ??.   I expect it would take a keen eye to notice the difference in a 6000 year old photograph of Mars and one taken today.

The restaurant kids meal activity “spot the differences” has many android app versions now including this one by CoRa games available at Google Play. I expect it would take a keen eye to notice the difference in a 6000 year old photograph of Mars and one taken today.

Scientists that study Mars have provided evidence to suggest that if you were to set pictures taken today beside those taken 6000 years ago there would not be many obvious differences.

How do we know so little has happened on Mars for thousands of years?  The Curiosity Rover is one scientific instrument that has provided, through some clever methods detailed below, the first rough estimate of both the age of some martian rocks and the rate of erosion.

So how fast have rocks been eroding on Mars in the past 6000, 100,000  or even millions of years?  In this particular location data provided by the Curiosity Rover suggest that these rocks are only eroding at a pace of about 1/2 inch per thousand years.

The only erosive forces active at this site are wind, thermal contraction and expansion and possible some chemical weathering.  None of these forces can work quickly in the thin, cold atmosphere lacking in many chemically active molecules.  Under present conditions measured directly by the Curiosity Rover, erosion at 1/2 inch per thousand years seems almost too optimistic.  Nonetheless, such rates of erosion suggest that the large geological features observed in Gale Crater, where the Curiosity Rover now resides, have not changed much in hundreds of thousands and even millions of years.

The very slow pace of change on the surface of Mars suggests that Mars surface is very ancient.  In fact, it is far old than the surface of the Earth which is regularly eroded but replaced by plate tectonic forces which force sedimentary rocks up into large mountain chains.

Mars Geology in the Context of Young Earth Creationism

Literal six-day creationists who believe that not only is the earth a mere 6000 years old but that the Universe, and thus Mars, are also only a few thousand years old cannot accept the extrapolations of present day observations into the past.  When they look at these layered rocks on Mars what is their response?  They propose that Mars must have experienced far different conditions in the recent past allowing for much higher rates of erosion (see: Young Mars Creationism).

Yes, it is possible that conditions in the past were different than they are in the present. In fact geologists are convinced that Mars has indeed experienced a different climate in the past, though they believe this was over 500 million years ago.  But could conditions have been radically different only a few thousand years ago?  Almost certainly not.  The Curiosity Rover has provided additional data that confirms that the presently observed conditions on Mars have persisted well into the past.

 

Faced with the increasing evidence of massive amounts of sedimentary rock on Mars, Young Mars Creationists (YMCs) are quickly adopting a catastrophic recent origin of geological features of the planets including Mars.  They accept the satellite and rover-gathered evidence that water once flowed on Mars.  They can see that there are massive deposits of sedimentary rock, there are erosion featured that suggest large rivers and there are shallow areas that have rock types that are evidence of their formation in shallow oceans or lakes. For example here is Answer in Genesis’ Geologist Andrew Snelling in 2007:

“There is no longer any doubt that the surface of Mars has in the past been covered by huge volumes of water which spread over vast areas. These resulted from cataclysmic outflows, which were also responsible for catastrophic erosion of channels and valleys, on a scale far greater than anything comparable on Earth, and deposition of sedimentary strata.”  Water activity on Mars: Landscapes and Sedimentary Strata.

I wrote about this earlier this year (Global Flood on Mars: Where Did the Water Go?).  YMCs recognize that current rates of deposition and erosion cannot explain the present-day observed features of Mars so they invoke a catastrophic past.  You may wonder though, why not simply invoke Creation? Why not say that God created just what the Curiosity rover is seeing today as it is?  This is what is called creation with the appearance of age and YMCs rightly resist claiming that God simply created all this evidence of a past history of Mars.  But being bound to origins view that requires Mars to be very young forces them to find alternative explanations for the evidence of massive changes to the geological landscape of Mars.   Hence, the appeal to Noahic-like catastrophic conditions in the very recent past.

While it is agreed upon by all geologists that past conditions were very different from those present on Mars today, there is no evidence to support those conditions having been different in the very recent past (less than 100,000 years).  A crater, filled with sediments that have then eroded to form the valleys we see today, speak to diverse conditions in the past but spread over long periods of time. The conditions that allowed for the unique appearance of the rock formation the rover is examining today are clearly the product of long exposures of wind erosion.    How long?  Probably hundreds of millions of years of erosion at rates similar to those observed today as evidenced by the data collected by the Curiosity Rover (see below).

Let me suggest one last observation that supports the conclusion that Mars has not changed much over thousands of years.  Mars has been called the red planet for 4000 years.  The very fact that it has been observed to be red for that long tells us that the planet has been devoid of water and covered in red dust for that long. Hence, wind erosion has been the only significant game in town with respect to erosion. Had there been a huge flood there 4500 years ago as YMCs propose then there would be massive amounts of water vapor in the atmosphere following that flood and the planet would not have looked red to the ancients who first observed the planet in the night sky.

For some details about how dating methods on Mars rocks have been used to estimate past rates of erosion see my article: Ancient Mars–Cosmogenic Dating Methods Allow Estimates of Erosion Rates on Mars.

Other articles about the Mars and Creationism:

My Interview with a Martian: A Story of Origins
The Mars Curiosity Rover: A Geological History Detective
Diverse Geological Landscapes Found on Mars
Curious Geology: Stunning Images Reveal a Complex Mars
NH Notes: Curiosity Update – Scenes on the Way to Mt. Sharp
Curiouser and Curiouser: A Mars Curiosity Update
Cosmogenic Dating Methods Allow Estimates of Erosion Rates on Mars
NH Notes: Answers in Genesis and a Mountain of Extraterrestrial Dust
NH Notes: Did Wind and Dust Create a 15,000 Foot Mountain in Gale Crater?
Non-Martian Rocks on Mars: Finding Small Meteorites on another Planet
Finding Mars on Earth: A Conversation about Martian Meteorites
Curiosity Rover Update: Diverse Geological Formations on Mars
Global Flood on Mars: Where Did the Water Go?
NH Notes: Mars Takes Another Hit, Wishes it had an Atmosphere Like Earth


Featured image:  Animal Spot the Difference Android App by CoRa Games

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  1. […] seen a lot of layered rocks on the surface of Mars, like these amazing rocks captured in July, 2015.Read more about this image. Credits: […]

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